In 1860 he went to Italy, took part in Garibaldi's expedition to Aspromonte (1862), and was interned as a prisoner of war in Naples.
On the surrender of Metz, he was sent as a prisoner of war to Aix-la-Chapelle, whence he returned in time to assist at the capture of Paris from the Commune.
He became leader of the Huguenots, but after several years' fighting was taken prisoner of war.
During republican agitation at Rome the French general Duphot was killed, a French army advanced on the city, and carried the aged pontiff a prisoner of war to Valence in Dauphine, where he died on the 29th of August 1799.
As a prisoner of war Cronje was sent to St Helena, where he remained until released after the conclusion of peace (see TRANSVAAL: History).