Among the natural causes may be classed all failures of crops due to excess or defect of rainfall and other meteorological phenomena, or to the ravages of insects and vermin.
The government has a meteorological station here and a national college.
During the first 40 years of the Meiji era numerous meteorological stations were established.
At the polar meteorological station of Sagastyr, in the delta of the Lena (73° 23' N.), the following average temperatures have been observed: January - 34.3° F.
It has a meteorological observatory.