Liqueurs, chicory, chocolate, candles, hats, boots and shoes, and woollen and linen goods are also made, and tanning is practised.
Among the specialities of Bologna may be noted the salami or mortadella (Bologna sausage), tortellini (a kind of macaroni) and liqueurs.
Industrially and commercially Lemberg is the most important city in Galicia, its industries including the manufacture of machinery and iron wares, matches, stearin candles and naphtha, arrack and liqueurs, chocolate, chicory, leather and plaster of Paris, as well as brewing, corn-milling and brick and tile making..
In the hands of Blaise Pascal (1623-1662) hydrostatics assumed the dignity of a science, and in a treatise on the equilibrium of liquids (Sur l'equilibre des liqueurs), found among his manuscripts after his death and published in 1663, the laws of the equilibrium of liquids were demonstrated in the most simple manner, and amply confirmed by experiments.
Besides the wine industry, an irregular though important industry is the manufacture of artificial or counterfeit spirits and liqueurs in Callao and Lima.