The husbandman was bound to carry out the proper cultivation, raise an average crop and leave the field in good tilth.
Landowners frequently cultivated their land themselves but might employ a husbandman or let it.
Culture of classical ages was slightly more developed in Greece so far as the husbandman of Greece and Rome was less able to leave to nature the fertilization of the soil.
The following epitome of Virgil's advice to the husbandman in the first book of the Georgics suggests the outline of Roman husbandry: "First learn the peculiarities of your soil and climate."
The very laws which were made during successive reigns for protecting the tillers of the soil from spoil are the best proofs of the deplorable state of the husbandman."' In the r7th century those laws were made which paved the way for an improved system of agriculture in Scotland.