Gold-dust is found in almost all the alpine regions fringing the great plateau.
The marginal rises and continental shelves prevent this cold bottom water from penetrating into the depths of the enclosed and fringing seas.
Belonging to the Fuegian group south of the Straits of Magellan are Desolation, Santa Ines, Clarence, Dawson, Londonderry, Hoste, Navarin and Wollaston islands, with innumerable smaller islands and rocks fringing their shores and filling the channels between them.
The Sub-Himalaya, which is " easily defined by the fringing line of hills, more or less broad, and in places very distinctly marked off from the main chain by open valleys (dhuns) or narrow valleys, parallel to the main axis of the chain."
Except Bird and Denis islands, which are of coralline limestone, the Seychelles are of granite, with in places fringing reefs of coral based on granite foundations.