The pope on his side grants the temporal sovereign certain rights, such as that of making or controlling the appointment of dignitaries; engages to proceed in harmony with the government in the creation of dioceses or parishes; and regularizes the situation produced by the usurpation of church property &c. The great advantage of concordats - indeed their principal utility - consists in transforming necessarily unequal unilateral claims into contractual obligations analogous to those which result from an international convention.
The constitutions and rituals of these secret orders have declarations of principles, of which the following are characteristic: to protect and succour the weak and unfortunate, especially the widows and orphans of Confederate soldiers; to protect members, of the white race in life, honour and property from the encroachments of the blacks; to oppose the Radical Republican party and the Union League; to defend constitutional liberty, to prevent usurpation, emancipate the whites, maintain peace and order, the laws of God, the principles of 1776, and the political and social supremacy of the white race - in short, to oppose African influence in government and society, and to prevent any intermingling of the races.
C. 12 recites that the hearing of appeals was an usurpation by the pope and a grievous abuse, and proceeds to take away the appeal in matrimonial, testamentary and tithe causes, and to hinder by forbidding citation and process from Rome, all original hearings also.
To the Republicans (Democratic Republicans) they seemed intended to cause a usurpation of powers ungranted.
The Presbyterian model was, for instance, as sacerdotal in its essence as the Catholic; Milton complained with justice that "new presbyter is but old priest writ large," and declared that "the Title of Clergy St Peter gave to all God's people," its later restriction being a papal and prelatical usurpation (i.e.