C. 12 recites that the hearing of appeals was an usurpation by the pope and a grievous abuse, and proceeds to take away the appeal in matrimonial, testamentary and tithe causes, and to hinder by forbidding citation and process from Rome, all original hearings also.
To the Republicans (Democratic Republicans) they seemed intended to cause a usurpation of powers ungranted.
The Presbyterian model was, for instance, as sacerdotal in its essence as the Catholic; Milton complained with justice that "new presbyter is but old priest writ large," and declared that "the Title of Clergy St Peter gave to all God's people," its later restriction being a papal and prelatical usurpation (i.e.
Almos did not submit to this usurpation, and was more or less of an active rebel till 1108, when the emperor Henry V.
We have no means of explaining this statement, nor can we fully understand all the incidents connected with his usurpation; but the attempts of modern authors to prove that Gaumata in reality was the genuine Smerdis and Darius a usurper have failed.