The usurpation of power on the part of the richer members was not always effected without opposition.
The central government has gained strength at the expense of the states, seldom by direct usurpation (except during the Civil War and Reconstruction, 1861-76), but indirectly through use and custom, as the country and people developed and new conditions of government arose.
The lessee must give notice to the lessor of any acts of usurpation committed on the property (Art.
Almos did not submit to this usurpation, and was more or less of an active rebel till 1108, when the emperor Henry V.
We have no means of explaining this statement, nor can we fully understand all the incidents connected with his usurpation; but the attempts of modern authors to prove that Gaumata in reality was the genuine Smerdis and Darius a usurper have failed.