Separatism was non-existent, for the cogent reason that there was no point toward which a new irredenta could gravitate: the Habsburg cause had no adherents, save a few discredited traitors who congregated in Graz and Vienna: and communism, which was quite alien to an agrarian and peasant-owned State, owed its passing success to the aftermath of war and the blunders of the middle class rather than to its own attractions.
Richman, Rhode Island: Its Making and Meaning, 1636-1683 (2 vols., 1902), and Rhode Island: A Study in Separatism (Boston and New York, 1905).
Brigham, in Field, III., pp. 65181; and Richman, in A Study in Separatism, pp. 353-85.
The story of the many attempts made in the interval by " forward " or advanced Puritans to secure vital religious fellowship within the queen's Church, and of the few cases in which these shaded off into practical Separatism, is still wrapped in some obscurity.
After the execution of Greenwood, Barrow and the ex-Puritan Penry (a recent recruit to Separatism), in the spring of 1593, it seemed to some that Separatism was " in effect extinguished."