They were originally of the nature of mortgage bonds on the national lands.
A married man may not sell or mortgage a homestead without his wife's consent.
But this resulted in so heavy a: burden upon the public that the law had again to be altered to extend hereditary rights, and to admit a system of mortgage which was assimilated to that for emiriye; but the evils were little more than palliated.
In the same year the general distress was intensified by the failure of the Rural and Mortgage Bank of Brazil.
The value of the assets of the spiritual work in the United Kingdom increased from £558,992 in 1891 to £1,357,706 in 1909, the liabilities on account of loans upon mortgage and otherwise amounting at the latter date to £662,235.