Subsequently, birth defects as a result of exposure to Agent Orange, the U.S. defoliant used in Vietnam, and radiation exposure near the site of the Chernobyl disaster in Russia have left numerous children with malformed or absent limbs.
The child may have an umbilical or inguinal hernia, malformed kidneys, and abnormalities of the urogenital system, including undescended testicles in a male child (cryptochordism).
Ebstein's anomaly is a rare congenital syndrome that causes malformed tricuspid valve leaflets, which allow blood to leak between the right ventricle and the right atrium.
Mothers may have difficulty bonding with an infant if prenatal testing suggests the child will have a birth defect or is likely to be mentally retarded and malformed.
Normally, the two tubes form separately (differentiate); however, in the case of EA/TEF, they do not differentiate, which results in various malformed configurations.