4.35), has been identified with two 1 Clepsydras inscribed in hieroglyphic are found soon after the Macedonian conquest.
Brugsch (q.v.) was the author of a hieroglyphic and demotic dictionary which still holds the field, and from time to time carried forward the study of demotic by a giants stride.
1872) in France was a brilliant translator of hieroglyphic texts and the author of an important grammatical work.
As a whole, we gain the Impression that a really distinct and more primitive stage of hieroglyphic writing by a substantially vaguer notation of words lay not far behind the time of the 1st Dynasty.
The only native work on the writing that has come to light as yet is a fragmentary papyrus of Roman date which has a table in parallel bite, &c. columns of hieroglyphic signs, with their hieratic equivalents and words written in hieratic de d ~ scribing them or giving their values or mean- woo ree ings.