He would fain have desired liberty, but all hope of it was gone.
The great Mogul emperor's impoverished and enfeebled successor was fain to recognize the Mahratta state by a formal instrument.
Through Spain he then threatened Portugal with extinction unless she too paid a heavy subsidy, a demand with which the court of Lisbon was fain to comply.
The theological calmness of the West, amid the violent theological disputes which troubled the Eastern patriarchates, and the statesmanlike wisdom of Rome's greater bishops, combined to give a unique position to the pope, which councils in vain strove to shake, and which in time of difficulty the Eastern patriarchs were fain to acknowledge and make use of, however they might protest against it and the conclusions deduced from it.
In one mood he was fain to ape the antique patriot; in another he affected the monastic saint.