The larvae of the tortoise-beetles have the curious habit of forming an umbrella-like shield out of their own excrement, held in position by the upturned tail-process.
In turn other animals took shape, the last being two golden spiders from whose excrement the earth gradually rose above the surrounding ocean.
Leather or excrement, with leprosy, madness and any form of disease.
These are discussed by Mr Howard in the paper referred to, but in brief they all amount to measures of general hygiene, and the isolation, prompt removal, or proper sterilization of the animal or human excrement in which these flies breed.
The maggots may pass no excrement from the intestine until they have eaten all their store of food.