Crocodiles are caught in various ways, - for instance, with two pointed sticks, which are fastened crosswise within the bait, an animal's entrails, to which is attached a rope.
The planks were of wood, often beech, a few inches wide, and were fastened down, end to end, on logs of wood, or " sleepers," placed crosswise at intervals of two or three feet.
The crosswise courses of the greater rivers result from the rivers being older than the mountains, which indeed have been produced by circumdenudation.
Among those Desmidiaceae which live a free life, two plants become surrounded by a common mucilage, in which they lie either parallel (Closterium) or crosswise (Cosmarium).
On all the accepted forms there are two or more flanges at the bottom, running lengthwise of the plate and crosswise of the rail; these are requisite to give proper stiffness, and further, as they are forced into the tie by the weight of passing traffic, they help to fix the plate securely in place.