Thus a series of arrays of beech leaves, gathered, subject to the precautions indicated, from each of loo beech trees in Buckinghamshire by Professor Pearson, gave 16.1 as the mean number of veins per leaf, the standard deviation of the veins in the series being 1.735.
The mean and standard deviation of all first leaves or of all second leaves will clearly be the same as those already determined for the series of leaves; since every leaf in the series is used once as a first member and once as a second member of a pair.
We see therefore that while leaves, gathered in equal numbers from each of loo trees, are distributed about their mean with a standard deviation of 1.735 veins, the leaves gathered from a single tree are distributed about their mean with a standard deviation of 1.426 veins, the ratio between variability of the race and variability of the individual tree being 1 - (0-5699)1=0.822.
We may therefore conclude that for large classes of characters, both animal and vegetable, the variability of an individual, as measured by the standard deviation of its undifferentiated but repeated organs, is a constant fraction of the variability of its race, as measured by the standard deviation of the corresponding series of organs produced by all the individuals of its race.
E is the normalized structure amplitude, SIGE is its standard deviation.