They are very thin-walled membranes, very poor in blood-vessels, formed by the bulged-out pleural or peritoneal covering of the lungs, through the parabronchial tubes of which they are filled with air.
In some cases each pleural ganglion is connected with the opposite branch of the visceral commissure by anastomosis with the pallial nerve, a condition which is called dialyneury; or there may be a direct connective from the pleural ganglion to the visceral ganglion of the opposite side, which is called zygoneury.
The adult stage, for example, has been found in the nasal passages of sheep, goats, horses and even of man, and the larval stage in the pleural and peritoneal cavities of dogs and cats.
An important feature is the occurrence in some species (Ptychoderidae) of paired longitudinal pleural or lateral folds of the body which are mobile, and can be approximated at their free edges so as to close in the dorsal surface, embracing both the median dorsal nerve-tract and the branchial grooves with the gill-pores, so as to form a temporary peri-branchial and medullary tube, open behind where the folds cease.
Correlated with the presence of the genital pleurae there is a pair of vascular folds of the basement membrane proceeding from the dorsal wall of the gut in the postbranchial portion of the branchio-genital region, and from the dorsal angles made by the pleural folds with the body-wall in the pharyngeal region; they pass, in their most fully developed condition, to the free border of the genital pleurae.