Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), a relatively new clinical classification, involves an ongoing pattern of antagonistic, defiant, and hostile behavior toward parents and other authority figures.
Parents of a child with a serious behavior disorder like oppositional defiant disorder should work with their child's therapist to deal with encopresis in the context of other behavioral problems.
Oppositional defiant disorder-An emotional and behavioral disorder of children and adolescents characterized by hostile, deliberately argumentative, and defiant behavior towards authority figures that lasts for longer than six months.
Reported problems include obsessive/compulsive behaviors, depression, temper tantrums and violent outbursts, and tendencies to be argumentative, oppositional, rigid, manipulative, possessive, and stubborn.
To give another example, such temperamental traits as irritability and strong negative reactivity are thought to contribute to the development of oppositional defiant disorder in some children.