It is a special feature of Russia that she has no free outlet to the open sea except on the ice-bound shores of the Arctic Ocean.
Direct observations of currents in the open sea are difficult, and even when the ship is anchored the veering and rolling of the vessel produce disturbances that greatly affect the result.
They now begin to disappear from the coasts and return to the open sea.
The narrow strait Strdmmen separates Kvalii from the larger Seiland, whose snow-covered hills with several glaciers rise above 3500 ft., while an insular rampart of mountains, Sord, protects the strait and harbour from the open sea.
From a study of remains of the mollusca, brachiopoda and other marine organisms they will determine the shallow water (littoral) and deep water (abyssal) regions of the surrounding oceans, and the clear or muddy, salt, brackish or fresh character of its inland and marginal seas; and even the physical conditions of the open sea at the time will be ascertained.