The islands on the sea-front are exposed to devastation by cyclonic storm-waves.
The cold is then intense and the force of the wind cyclonic. Speaking generally, the Afghanistan climate is a dry one.
Between these cyclonic storms come areas of high pressure, or anticyclones, with dry cool air in summer, and dry cold air in winter, sometimes with such decided changes in temperature as to merit the name cold wave.
A curious feature of the cyclonic storms is that, whether they cross the interior of the country near the northern or southern boundary or along an intermediate path, they converge towards New England as they pass on toward the Atlantic; and hence that the north-eastern part of the United States is subjected to especially numerous and strong weather changes.
In wintertime, the cyclonic and anticyclonic areas are of increased frequency and intensity; and it is partly for this reason that many meteorologists have been disposed to regard them as chiefly driven by the irregular flow of the westerly winds, rather than as due to convectional instability, which should have a maximum effect in summer.