The Siamese alphabet consists of 44 consonants, in each of which the vowel sound" aw "is inherent, and of 32 vowels all marked not by individual letters, but by signs written above, below, before or after the consonant in connexion with which they are to be pronounced.
The vowel signs have no sound by themselves, but act upon the vowel sound" aw "inherent in the consonants, converting it into" a," i," o," ee," ow,"&c. Each of the signs has a name, and some of them produce modulations so closely resembling those made by another that at the present day they are scarcely to be distinguished apart.
It divides (chap. 8) evidences (7r1aTEts) into two kinds (I) evidence from arguments, actions and men (ai j s v E air&v Tcev Xhywv cal Twv 7rpit aw cal TWV avOpcoirwv); (2) adventitious evidences (ai S' iIriOETOtTOLs X yo,u vots cal Tois rpm-To/lb/0a).
Vowel Changes.-(I) Long a, whether from Aryan a or o or from Latin a, becomes aw in monosyllables, as in brawd, " brother " from *brater; in the penult it is o, as in broder, " brothers," in the ultima aw, later o, as in pechawd, now pechod, from peccatum.