Thus the retributive theory of punishment with its criterion of justice as an end in itself gives place to a theory which regards punishment solely as a means to an end, utilitarian or moral, according as the common advantage or the good of the criminal is sought.
Fourthly: if we try to think of objects not built up out of sensations and not in time and space, we are Austin's Jurisprudence explicitly assumes that the dilemma of " intuitive " and " utilitarian " is exhaustive.
Peter had endeavoured to import from western Europe the essentials of good government and such of the useful arts as were required for the development of the natural resources of the country; Catherine did likewise, but she did not restrict herself to purely utilitarian aims in the narrower sense of the term.
The pursuit of such happiness is taught by the "utilitarian" philosophy, an expression used by Bentham himself in 1802, and therefore not invented by J.
But most of Bentham's conclusions may be accepted without any formal profession of the utilitarian theory of morals.