In 1607-1610 the Tunguses fought strenuously for their independence, but were subdued about 1623.
The duke then attacked strenuously all along the line, and before darkness stopped the fight he drove back the French to their morning position at Frasnes.
After the death of Francis I., his successor, Henry II., set himself even more strenuously to .extirpate heresy; a special branch of the parlement of Paris - the so-called Chambre ardente - for the trial of heresy cases party was established, and the fierce edict of Chateaubriand (June 1551) explicitly adopted many of the expedients of the papal inquisition.
In spite of the poor condition in Europe of the credit of the struggling colonies, and of the fact that France was almost bankrupt (and in the later years was at war), and although Necker strenuously resisted the making of any loans to the colonies, France, largely because of Franklin's appeals, expended, by loan or gift to the colonies, or in sustenance of the French arms in America, a sum estimated at $60,000,000.
Although converted to Roman Catholicism in 1625, Holstenius showed his liberal-mindedness by strenuously opposing the strict censorship exercised by the Congregation of the Index.