Thenceforward the elector of Trier held the third place in the electoral college.
During the Thirty Years' War the elector Philip Christopher von Sotern favoured France, and accepted French protection in 1631.
Partly for this reason, while Washington had the vote of every elector in the first presidential election of 1789, Adams received only thirty-four out of sixtynine.
The theory was that all the imperial business in Germany was supervised by the elector of Mainz, and for Italy by the elector of Cologne.
The death without direct heirs of Duke John William in 1609 led to serious complications in which almost all the states of Europe were concerned; however, by the treaty of Xanten in 1614, Cleves passed to the elector of Brandenburg, being afterwards incorporated with the electorate by the great elector, Frederick William.