He was appointed inspector-general of higher education in 1876, and after his election as life senator in 1881 he continued to take an active interest in educational questions, especially as affected by compulsory military service.
The military service of the republic was reorganized in 1901, and is compulsory for all citizens between the ages of 20 and 45.
Compulsory attendance of young men at national guard drills is enforced for at least two months of the year, under penalty of enforced service in the Line.
Primary education is free and secular, and is compulsory for children of 6 to 14 years.
Recruiting and Strength.EJniversal compulsory service was adopted after the disasters of 1870-1871, though in principle it had been established by Marshal Niels reforms a few years before that date.