In 456 it was seized by Genseric. It was retaken Byzantine period.
In 987; between 1018 and 1186, under Byzantine rule, it served as a frontier fortress.
Philomelion was probably a Pergamenian foundation on the great Graeco-Roman highway from Ephesus to the east, and to its townsmen the Smyrniotes wrote the letter that describes the martyrdom of Polycarp. Cicero, on his way to Cilicia, dated some of his extant correspondence there; and the place played a considerable part in the frontier wars between the Byzantine emperors and the sultanate of Rum.
The Byzantine army captured fifteen thousand prisoners.
In the 9th century the Bulgarians became masters of Naissus, but had to cede it to the Hungarians in the iith century, from whom the Byzantine emperor Manuel I.