Its communities were bound together by a sense of close fraternal relation.
Among the gildsmen there was a strong spirit of fraternal cooperation or Christian brotherhood, with a mixture of worldly and religious ideals - the support of the body and the salvation of the soul.
The remarkable junction or fusion of the Independents or " Separatists " who emigrated from Leiden to Plymouth, Massachusetts, with the Puritan Nonconformists of Massachusetts Bay, modified Independency by the introduction of positive fraternal relations among the churches.
It was founded at New York in 1843 by a number of German Jews, headed by Henry Jones, and is the oldest as well as the largest of the Jewish fraternal organizations.
The city has large publishing interests, and various religious (Methodist Episcopal and Roman Catholic) and fraternal periodicals, and several technical journals and trade papers are published here.