He was naturally studious, however, and supplemented his scant schooling by night study.
His schooling was irregular and not successful.
Compulsory and gratuitous schooling for the Protestants had been enforced in Livonia since 1860, and in Courland since 1875.
Much of his boyhood was spent in Italy, where he received part of his schooling, and acquired a taste for the fine arts and a love of travel; but he was at school also in England, France and Switzerland.
Until sixteen years of age no child is to be so employed without an employment certificate issued by a commissioner of health, and showing that the child has completed an eight years' course of study in a public school of the state or has had an equivalent schooling elsewhere.