They are of three kinds: - (i) Depots de mendicite (beggars' depots); (2) maisons de refuge (houses of refuge); and (3) ecoles de bienfaisance (reformatory schools).
North-west of Milledgeville is the state juvenile reformatory; 2 m.
At Concord there is a state reformatory, whose inmates, about Boo in number, are employed in manufacturing various articles, but otherwise the town has only minor business and industrial interests.
There were in 1908 two penitentiaries, one at Joliet and one at Chester, and, in addition to the two reformatory institutions for young offenders under the supervision of the Board of Charities, there is a State Reformatory for boys at Pontiac. The indeterminate sentence and parole systems are important features of the treatment of criminals.
Orphans of respectable parents have a home at Birmingham, and the reformatory school has done splendid service for lads who have committed a first offence.