Russia witness the formation of numerous miniature canons, or ovraghi (deep ravines), the summits of which rapidly advance and ramify in the loose surface deposits.
To the base of the stem are attached a number of branched cell-threads (rhizoids) which ramify in the soil, fixing the plant and absorbing water from soil.
The other type is called endctropic. The fungal filaments either penetrate the epidermis of the root, or enter it from the stem and ramify in the interior.
From this branches pass into the middle region of the cortex and ramify through the interior half of its cells.
The non-articulate tissue which occurs in Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae, Urticaceae, Asclepiadaceae, consists of long tubes, equivalent to single multinucleate cells, which ramify in all directions throughout the plant.