At the same time the total ordinary expenditure has increased at a similarly steady rate, namely, from £119,391,000 in 1895 to £202,544,000 in 1905.
At the council at Fili the prevailing thought in the minds of the Russian commanders was the one naturally suggesting itself, namely, a direct retreat by the Nizhni road.
Between 1895 and 1905 the building of railways proceeded at a rapid rate, the total length nearly doubling within the ten years, namely, from 22,600 to 40,500 m.
The following table shows the urban population in the various divisions of the empire in 1897: - There were in European Russia and Poland only twelve cities with more than too,000 inhabitants in 1884; in 1900 there were sixteen, namely, St Petersburg, Moscow, Warsaw, Odessa, Lodz, Riga, Kiev, Kharkov, Vilna, Saratov, Kazan, Ekaterinoslav, Rostov-on-the Don, Astrakhan, Tula and Kishinev.
In other parts of the empire there were four cities each having over too,000 inhabitants in that year, namely, Baku, Tiflis, Tashkent and Helsingfors.