The spirit of Vedic worship is pervaded by a devout belief in the efficacy of invocation and sacrificial offering.
The goddess sometimes appears with doves, as uranic, at others with snakes, as chthonic. In the ritual fetishes, often of miniature form, played a great part: all sorts of plants and animals were sacred: sacrifice (not burnt, and human very doubtful), dedication of all sorts of offerings and simulacra, invocation, &c., were practised.
Introits were provided for use on every Sunday and Holy-Day; after the offertory intending communicants were directed to " tarry still in the quire or in some convenient place nigh the quire "; in the prayer " for the whole state of Christ's church," the blessed Virgin Mary was commemorated by name among departed saints; prayer for the departed was explicitly retained; also an invocation of the Holy Spirit before the words of institution, the prayer of oblation immediately following them.
Aristotle has left some verses from an invocation to Arete (Virtue), commemorating the worth of Hermeas, who had been seized by Persian treachery and put to death.
His doctrine at that date appears to have been very vague; he seemingly rejected the invocation of saints and also second marriages, and preached penitence.