Even at this stage the vindictive or retributive character of punishment remains, but gradually, and specially after the humanist movement under thinkers like Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, new theories begin to emerge.
GEORGIUS MERULA (the Latinized name of Giorgio Mirlani; c. 1 43 0 - 1 494), Italian humanist and classical scholar, was born at Alessandria in Piedmont.
AONIO PALEARIO (c. 1500-1570), Italian humanist and reformer, was born about 1500 at Veroli, in the Roman Campagna.
His tutors were the learned Janos Vitez, bishop of Nagyvarad, whom he subsequently raised to the primacy, and the Polish humanist Gregory Sanocki.
At the university of Greifswald he gained much distinction as a humanist, and in 1504 was appointed by the abbot of the Praemonstratensian monastery at Belbuck rector of the town school at Treptow.