The power of resisting displacement constitutes stability, the power of each piece to resist disfigurement is its stiffness; and its power to resist breaking, its strength.
The effect of the pressures applied to a piece, consisting of the load and the sispporting resistances, is to force the piece into a state of strain or disfigurement, which increases until the elasticity, or resistance to strain, of the material causes it to exert a stress, or effort to recover its figure, equal and opposite to the system of applied pressures.
The condition of stiffness is that the strain or disfigurement shall not be greater than is consistent with the purposes of the structure; and the condition of strength is that the stress shall be within the limits of that which the material can bear with safety against breaking.
31, &c., is an intentional disfigurement of mu' 5q1, The name has been found on an important Aramaic inscr.
Adult foreigners visiting the country are also liable to be attacked, and women, especially, rarely escape disfigurement if they stay in the country for any length of time.