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Where no running water is available for irrigation, water is often obtained from wells by means of waterwheels (nones) of simple construction.
Two waterwheels are used to drive the pumps, which are still operable, although electric pumps are now normally used.
In the 17th century, flood water was lifted by chain pumps with tipping buckets, powered either by waterwheels or horse whims.
The numerous waterwheels (naurah,) of enormous dimension, raising water from the Orontes are the most remarkable features of the view.