The proteid matter combines with a part of the tannin in the wine, forming an insoluble tannate, and this gradually subsides to the bottom of the cask, dragging with it the mechanically suspended matters which are the main cause of the wine's turbidity.
Tannic acid, for instance, precipitates codeine as a tannate, salts of many of the heavy metals form precipitates of meconates and sulphates, whilst the various alkalis, alkaline carbonates and ammonia precipitate the important alkaloids.
Of the insoluble salts we may notice the tannate, the propionic acid ester (euquinine) and carbonic acid ester (aristoquin), the salicylic acid ester.
Lower down in the bowel these compounds are converted into ferrous sulphide and tannate, and are eliminated with the faeces, turning them black.
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