This writer traces their origin to the 14th century; but the procedure does not seem to have become regularized or common till the reigns of Louis XII.
By the law " De Judaeis " passed by the Diet in 1791 the Jews were accorded protection, but half a century passed before their tolerated condition was regularized.
The pope could be under no delusion as to the value of this oath, which indeed was not kept; he merely regularized formally a state of affairs which the intractable Urban II.
The earliest of these Bohemian overlords, King John and the emperor Charles IV., fully justified their intrusion by the vigorous way in which they restored order and regularized the administration; in particular, the cities at this time attained a high degree of material prosperity and political importance.
The whole question of the provisional financial decrees was ultimately regularized by a special resolution of the Rigsdag; and the retirement of the Estrup ministry in August 1894 was the immediate result of the compromise.