The acts imposing fines for recusancy, repealed in 1650, were later executed with great severity.
In 1555 Rawlins White, a fisherman, was burnt at Cardiff for his Protestantism, and in 1679 two Catholic priests were executed for recusancy.
He was educated at Oxford, where, at the age of twenty, he was imprisoned for recusancy.
In July 1603 the fines for recusancy were remitted.
On the 22nd of February 1604 a proclamation was issued banishing priests; on the 28th of November 1604, recusancy fines were demanded from 13 wealthy persons, and on the 10th of February 1605 the penal laws were ordered to be executed.