The physical investigation of osmotic pressure, and its correlation by Van't Hoff with the pressure of a gas, brought forward a new aspect of the phenomena, and suggested an identity of physical modus operandi as well as of numerical value.
The modus operandi is to turn the plant out of its pot, shake away the soil so as to free the roots, and then select as many pieces of the stouter roots as may be required.
On the 5th of November 1904, Colombia and Ecuador agreed to submit their dispute to the German emperor, and a convention of the 12th of September 1905 between Colombia and Peru established a modus vivendi for the settlement of their conflicting claims, in which Ecuador is likewise interested.
Sigwart does not indeed shrink from this and greater absurdities; he reduces the first figure to the modus ponens and the second to the modus tollens of the hypothetical syllogism, and then, finding no place for the third figure, denies that it can infer necessity; whereas it really infers the necessary consequence of particular conclusions.
The modus operandi is briefly as follows: The position of the fracture is determined by electrical tests from both ends, with more or less accuracy, depending on the nature of the fracture, but with a probable error not exceeding a few miles.