He was United States minister to Italy from 1882 to 1885.
Though it is the duty of a minister to warn against irreverent or profane participation in the Lord's Supper, he himself has no right to exclude any one from communion; that can only be done as the act of himself and the elders duly assembled in session.
Its foremost representative was Francis Makemie, already mentioned, who, in 1683, as an ordained minister of the presbytery of Laggan, was invited to minister to the Maryland and Virginia Presbyterians.
The question of the Puna de Atacama was referred to a tribunal composed of the United States minister to Argentina and of one Argentine and one Chilean delegate; that of the southern frontier in Patagonia to the British crown.
He was minister to Great Britain in1796-1803and again in 1825-1826, and was the Federalist candidate for vicepresident in 1804 and 1808, and for president in 1816, when he received 34 electoral votes to 183 cast for Monroe.