Myrtaceae comes next with Eucalyptus, which forms three-fourths of the forests, and Melaleuca; both are absent from New Caledonia and New Zealand; a few species of the former extend to New Guinea and one of the latter to Malaya.
There is much less moisture, and the flora is of a less tropical character than farther north; it has some Polynesian and New Zealand affinities, and on the west coast a partially Australian character; on the higher hills it is stunted; on the lower, however, there are fine .grass lands, and a scattered growth of niaulis (Melaleuca viridiflora), useful for its timber, bark and cajeput oil.
The only important exports, however, are cajeput oil, a sudorific distilled from the leaves of the Melaleuca Cajuputi or white-wood tree; and timber.
On the eastern side the plains and rocky ridges, where not artificially cleared, are occupied by shaggy and often sombre forests mainly composed of the following genera: Eucalyptus (gum tree), Casuarina, Bursaria, Acacia, Leptospermum, Drimys, Melaleuca, Dodonaea, Notolea, Exocarpus, Hakea, Epacris, Xanthorrhoea, Frenela.
Australian farmers grow Melaleuca or tea trees on plantation throughout the northeast coast of New South Wales.