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While still an undergraduate he formed a league with John Herschel and Charles Babbage, to conduct the famous struggle of "d-ism versus dot-age," which ended in the introduction into Cambridge of the continental notation in the infinitesimal calculus to the exclusion of the fluxional notation of Sir Isaac Newton.

Phillips, 1896); A Brief Introduction to the Infinitesimal Calculus (1897); The Nature of Capital and Income (1906); The Rate of Interest 0907); National Vitality (1909); The Purchasing Power of Money (1911); Elementary Principles of Economics (1913); Why is the Dollar Shrinking?

The former was professor of mathematics at Bologna, and published, among other works, a treatise on the infinitesimal calculus.

He at once took a leading position in the mathematical teaching of the university, and published treatises on the Di f ferential calculus (in 1848) and the Infinitesimal calculus (4 vols., 1852-1860), which for long were the recognized textbooks there.

General aspects of the subject are considered under Mensuration; Vector Analysis; Infinitesimal Calculus.