Some critics have impugned his legal knowledge, but probably without justice.
In his closing years he had some controversy with John Locke, whom he considered to have impugned the doctrine of the Trinity.
Sir James Rose-Innes, a lawyer whose intellectual gifts and patriotism have never been impugned, was not a " party man," and this made him, on more than one occasion, a somewhat difficult political ally.
Osiander, maintaining the infusion of Christ's righteousness into the believer, impugned the Lutheran doctrine of imputation; Chemnitz defended it with striking ability.
It is true that his election was immediately impugned by the cardinals on frivolous grounds; but the responsibility for this rests, partially at least, with the pope himself, whose reckless and inconsiderate zeal for reform was bound to excite a revolution among the worldly cardinals still yearning for the fleshpots of Avignon.