In 1684 Charles, having triumphed over the Exclusionists, restored James to the office of high admiral by use of his dispensing power.
Now it was, too, that the exclusionists, who in the absence of parliament were deprived of their best basis for agitation, developed the system of petitioning.
Monmouth at once threw himself more vehemently than ever into the plans of the exclusionists.
The parliament finished a session of hysterical passion by passing a series of resolutions of extreme violence, of which one was that Monmouth should be restored to all his offices and commands; and when Charles summoned a fresh parliament to meet at Oxford the leaders of the exclusionists went thither with troops of armed men.
In his resistance to the great movement for the exclusion of James from the succession, Charles was aided by moderate men such as Halifax, who desired only a restriction of James's powers, and still more by the violence of the extreme exclusionists themselves, who headed by Shaftesbury brought about their own downfall and that of their cause by their support of the legitimacy and claims of Charles's natural son, the duke of Monmouth.