It may be held that every action is causally connected not only externally with the sum of the agent's environment, but also internally with his motives and impulses.
He allows, in fact, no a priori forms except categories of the understanding, and these he reduces, considering that the most important are identity with difference and causality, which in his view are necessary to the judgments that the various data which make up a total impression (Gesammteindruck, Totaleindruck) are each different from the others, together identical with the total impression, and causally connected in relations of necessary sequence and coexistence.
In ethics the term is used, like indeterminism, to denote the theory that mental change cannot always be ascribed to previously ascertained psychological states, and that volition is not causally related to the motives involved.
The timeless foreknowledge of the Deity foresees human actions as contingent, not as causally determined.
One of the most significant developments to the theory of Vision in God was the view that ideas are causally efficacious.