1505) contributed a History of the Caliphs and many biographical pieces.
- One task of the early caliphs was to find an outlet for the restless fighting spirit.
Abu Bekr (632-634), the first of these caliphs, was a man of simple life and profound faith.
The Shiite caliphs of Egypt were by this time the playthings of contending viziers, as the Sunnite caliphs of Bagdad had long been the puppets of Turkish sultans or amirs; and in 1164 Amalric I.
The first explorer to enter the sacred Hejaz with a definite scientific object was the Spaniard, Badia y aeblich, who, under the name of Ali Bey and claiming to be the last representative of the Abbasid Caliphs, arrived at Jidda in 1807, and performed the pilgrimage to Mecca.