Refounded by the Byzantines in the 6th century, the city disappeared from history at the time of the Arab conquest of the country in the 7th century.
This latter change in itself made pilgrimages from the West increasingly difficult: the Byzantines, especially after the schism of 1054, did not seek to smooth the way of the pilgrim, and Victor II.
Partly by contact with the Byzantines, partly by conflict with the Mahommedans, the Franks learned new methods 1 Authors like Heeren (Versuch einer Entwickelung der Folgen der Kreuzziige) and Michaud (in the last volume of his Histoire des croisades) fall into the error of assigning all things to the Crusades.
Later, all that we understand by Syria came to be so known officially to the Romans and Byzantines; but the only province called simply Syria, without qualification, remained in the Orontes valley.
Gregorovius, Athena's (Leipzig, 1892); C. Diehl, Figures byzantines (Paris, 1906), pp. 25-49; also Theodosius.