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This may be written (P+ Q - R) +S = T; and this statement, by definition of the sign -, is the same as the statement that (P+Q - R) = T - S.

Now by definition J (z) _ C cos (z cos e) do = 1 - 22-%2?

If 0', E', v'; and 4)", E", v", refer to unit mass of the substance in the first and second states respectively in equilibrium at a temperature 0 and pressure p, the heat absorbed, L, per unit mass in a change from the first to the second state is, by definition of the entropy, equal to 0(4)"-4)'), and this by the first law is equal to the change of intrinsic energy, E" - E', plus the external work done, p(v" - v'), i.e.

Since by definition E_ - v(dp/dv) =p(dp/dp) equation (6) becomes U = (dp / dp) (7) The value U = / (E/p) was first virtually obtained by Newton (Principia, bk.

If everything knowable is an example of evolution, and evolution is by definition a transformation of matter and motion, then everything knowable is an example of a transformation of matter and motion.