When the solutions may be taken as effectively dilute, so that the gas laws apply to the osmotic pressure, this relation reduces to E _ nrRT to c1 ey gE c2 where n is the number of ions given by one molecule of the salt, r the transport ratio of the anion, R the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, y the total valency of the anions obtained from one molecule, and c i and c 2 the concentrations of the two solutions.
This "passivity" may be brought about by immersion in other solutions, especially by those containing such oxidizing anions as NO' 3, C10' 3, less strongly by the anions SO" 4, CN', CNS', C2H30'2, OH', while Cl', Br' practically inhibit passivity; H' is the only cation which has any effect, and this tends to exclude passivity.
Mixed metal oxides and phases containing mixed anions, such as oxide fluorides, provide our current focus.
Use of enolate anions in synthesis, general principles.
Retention of organic anions causes a progressive increase in the anion gap and a further fall in plasma bicarbonate concentration.