For humanism, which was the vital element in the Revival of Learning, consists mainly of a just perception of the dignity of man as a rational, volitional and sentient being, born upon this earth with a right to use it and enjoy it.
It has been chiefly indebted to writers, who were not, or were not primarily, logicians, to Avenarius, for example, for the law of the economy of thought, to Wundt, whose system, and therewith his logic,' is a pendant to his psychology, for the volitional character of judgment, to Herbert Spencer and others.
If the whole of a man's personality goes to the making of the truth he accepts, it is clear that his beliefs are not matters of "pure reason," and that his passional and volitional nature must contribute to them and cannot validly be excluded.
Moreover, by the processes the subject has gone through he has had those physiological activities upon which his volitional power depends excessively deranged, and not improbably permanently enfeebled.
Carp, possess practically no cortex cerebri, and nevertheless execute "volitional" acts involving high co-ordination and suggesting the possession by them of associative memory, shows that for the existence of these phenomena the cortex cerebri is in them not essential.