First as regards the transmitting part, one essential element is the antenna, aerial, or air wire, which may take a variety of forms. It may consist of a single plain or stranded copper wire upheld at the top by an insulator from a mast, chimney or building.
Long, arranged in fan-shape and upheld between two masts.
They have thus upheld the true contractual nature of concordats and the mutual juridical obligation which results from them.
But as in Ireland so Cromwell's policy in Scotland was unpopular and was only upheld by the maintenance of a large army, necessitating heavy taxation and implying the loss of the national independence.
In December 1654 Penn and Venables sailed for the West Indies with orders to attack the Spanish colonies and the French shipping; and for the first time since the Plantagenets an English fleet appeared in the Mediterranean, where Blake upheld the supremacy of the English flag, made a treaty with the dey of Algiers, destroyed the castles and ships of the dey of Tunis at Porto Farina on the 4th of April 1655, and liberated the English prisoners captured by the pirates.