The development of marine commerce has been retarded by unimproved harbours, but Fernandina and Pensacola harbours have always been good.
In 1908 an Income Tax and a Land Tax Act was passed; the land tax being a halfpenny in the £ " on the aggregate unimproved value " - it brought in £30,000 in 1908-1909.
The smaller size of the flocks and the breeding of sheep for meat rather than for wool, the cultivation of English grasses and of extensive crops of turnips and other roots on which to fatten sheep and lambs, all tend to change sheep-farming from the mere grazing of huge mobs on wide, unimproved runs held by pastoral licences.
In the £ on capital value, and also of a graduated-tax upon unimproved land values, and an income-tax also graduated, though less elaborately.
In 1896 municipal and rural local bodies were allowed to levy rates upon unimproved land values if authorized to do so by a vote of their electors, and by the end of 1901 some sixty bodies, amongst them the city of Wellington, had made use:of this permission.